A horizontal integration consists of companies that acquire a similar company in the same industry, while a vertical integration consists of companies that acquire a company that operates either before or after the acquiring company in the production process.
Linkages are essential in any business for it to flourish, and the concept of having fully integrated IT systems is something that Industry 5.0 aims for. Imagine a manufacturing sector where engineering, production, marketing and after-sales are closely linked together.
Similarly, companies will also be more integrated, giving rise to data integration networks and value chains that are fully automated. Collaboration among companies and industries will surely be facilitated.